Nasal spray with a long nozzle to spray at the correct angle
Stage 1 Research
The parameter of nasal sprays
The spray pattern in a nostril is affected by a number of factors, for example, the angle of the spray nozzle, the insertion depth, the head position and the viscosity of the liquid. The first three aspects are effects of the usability of the spray.
How nasal sprays works
The drug is absorbed from the nasal membrane deep inside the nose. After being absorbed the medicine is delivered through the bloodstream.
The effect of insertion angle
The angle of the spray nozzle when inserted in a nostril greatly influences the deposition pattern. Kundoor investigated the relationship between the angle and the pattern in the nostril. He concluded that when the sprays are used at an angle of between 60 and 75 degrees, the spray is accumulated over a wider area.
Kundoor, V., & Dalby, R. N. (2011). Effect of formulation-and administration-related variables on deposition pattern of nasal spray pumps evaluated using a nasal cast. Pharmaceutical research, 28(8), 1895-1904.
Stage 2 Interview to professional
I interviewed a rhinologist, Professor Richard A. Lebowitz, at New York University about his treatment and his instructions on how to use nasal sprays. According to him, the pattern shown in the article by Kundoor, of 60 to 75 degrees, is the most effective angle for treatment.
When the spray is deposited at various heights, the mucociliary clearance in the nose can deliver the medicine from the anterior to the posterior nostril. On the other hand, when the drug is sprayed at the inferior part of the nose, it can not be delivered to the upper position and the effect of the treatment is diminished. He mainly agreed with my design direction and added some comments.
Stage 3 Sketches
Stage 4 Prototype Making
Many patients do not read the instructions. Therefore the new spray has to be able to be used instinctively.
I checked with users which design was best to spray the drug at the ideal angle.
I constructed models with blue foam and asked the users to put them next to their nose in what they imagined was the correct position.
The participants were informed of the position of the lever and the nozzle but were not told how to hold the sprays.